2004-2009 Modified Assertive Community Treatment – A Recommendation

What is Assertive Community Treatment?

Assertive community treatment is a comprehensive and systematic approach to providing mental health services in the community.  Its teams deal with people who have the most extreme mental illness types, including but not limited to schizophrenia disorders. Patients that use the services of assertive community treatment may have diagnostic profiles that include features found in other DSM-5 categories (for example, depressive, bipolar, personality disorders, and anxiety among others).

Most have a history of substance abuse, trauma and victimization, psychiatric hospitalization, arrests and imprisonment, homelessness, and other serious issues. The complications and symptoms of their mental disorders have caused important functional issues in a number of aspects of their lives, including employment, residential freedom, social relationships, money management, etc. By the time they begin using assertive community treatment programs, they will most likely have experienced dissatisfaction, discrimination, and stigmatization, and their prospects are likely to be grim.

Initial Developments

Assertive community treatment was created in the 1970s, during deinstitutionalization, at the time large numbers of patients were being released from state-run psychiatric hospitals into a poorly integrated and underdeveloped “non-system” of volunteer services with major “gaps” and “cracks,” as one of the model’s developers put it. The founders were Leonard I Stein, Mary Ann Test, William H Knoedler, Deborah J Allness, Arnold J Marx, and their colleagues at the Mendota Mental Health Institute, a state psychiatric hospital in Madison, Wisconsin.

The Training in Group Living movement, also known as the Program of Assertive Community Care (PACT) or simply the “Madison Model,” seemed radical at the time, but has since developed into one of the most innovative service delivery models in community mental health history. The first Madison initiative received the prestigious GOLD Award from the American Psychiatric Association in 1974. Since establishing the model as a tool to prevent hospitalization in a relatively heterogeneous group of prospective state hospital patients in the early 1980s, the PACT team focused on a more widely defined target population of young adults with early-stage schizophrenia.

The shows the correlation analysis overview of the rehabilitation programs we’re actually being evaluated as part of it’s Updated Assertive Community Psychiatric facility throughout Memphis, Tennessee:


For individuals affected by co-occurring conditions, The process includes evidence-based key concepts of Assertive community treatment (ACT) comprehensive care & Critical Support System Elements for Resolving Severe Suffering from homelessness (SAMHSA, 2003), and those classified by local and state needs assessments as most urgently requiring housing while obtaining less than ten percent of available accommodation.

The model considers the various complex social, political, and financial roadblocks that lead to the African Americans are overrepresented. throughout this target group, and also an extremely impoverished environment; It’s been dubbed “the Middle East about the Mississippi” (where more than 40 percent The average wealth of African U.s. homes is not enough to put them in poverty). Foundations Partners, the recipient company, is the population’s only comprehensive primary caretaker.

Our advocates and partners are willing to bring ideas from both metropolitan area and statewide efforts into assistance to protect: The issue is not one of homelessness. This is a manifestation of more serious issues. Our mission is to integrate interagency cooperation approaches that coordinate existing programs and distribute resources separately in the order to increase the number and variety of services accessible to homeless Memphis communities with co-occurring disorders.

Instead of a society that values extended family as well as religious programs, our overburdened communities and societies are becoming increasingly still unable to tolerate the increased dependency and habits associated with co-occurring disorders on already overburdened resources. Homelessness has an incalculable human as well as the financial cost for people having SMI and abnormalities that co-occur. States, governments, and clinicians will begin the daunting yet important work of system reform to help people for people having SMI and abnormalities that co-occur if they have cost-effective options and the will to adopt them (SAMHSA, 2003).


About 2,000 individuals are homeless in Memphis/Shelby County on any night [living in homeless temporary housing, temporary housing, or end up homeless] (2002, Memphis Blueprint). According to a 2001 survey, greater than seven thousand people went missing In that year, they received food, shelter, & services. Furthermore, some 9,058 people In Memphis, applied for transitional or emergency shelter housing but were turned down. (2002, Memphis Blueprint). This doesn’t mention the thousands of people who aren’t homeless but live in dangerous situations (e.g., inappropriate or cohabiting or deplorable living conditions).

To fix this urgent neighbourhood question, both leaders of Memphis & Shelby County formed a Special Forces Team on Homelessness towards building a comprehensive Nationwide Blueprint on Homelessness as a community-focused roadmap for tanking homelessness. The Mayors’ Investigation Team discovered that individuals with severe mental disorder, SA disabilities, and dual diagnoses represent approximately two out of three main homeless subgroups through a variety of polling, surveys, as well as other initiatives. As a result, homelessness is not an issue, according to the study. It’s a harbinger of bigger problems.

Our mission is to integrate the public in a public health initiative that incorporates culturally responsive SA rehabilitation and professional MH with assistance programs, good connections to healthcare services and vocational support, HIV/AIDS community-based organisations, and other care and rehabilitation services.

Our strategic alliances will bring together a variety of multicultural organizations, Members of faith, as well as other community assistance with primarilyPatterns of African American jobs, and also agencies with meet local and memberships, to offer135 predominantly African American persons who fulfil the Displacement Mitigation Act requirements receive environmental assertive community treatment resources: many who do not have a fixed, normal, adequate nightly residence (including those whose primary nighttime residence is a monitored publicly or privately shelter intended to provide interim housing arrangements; a time-limited/non-permanent transitional housing program for individuals seeking MH/SA care; or a public or private facility not designed for or hosting a regular MH/SA treatment program).

Adults aged 18 and over will be able to use the facilities. Based on our prior experience with this demographic and our community roots, we estimate that 80-90 per cent of participants would be African-American, with roughly 25 per cent women. Commonly used medications will be crack/cocaine, marijuana, & alcohol, although the rest of the psychiatric disorders will be bipolar, schizophrenia, or extreme depression.

Individuals with co-occurring circumstances were found to be the most desperate in need of residential care in a longitudinal statewide analysis of homelessness conducted in Tennessee by THDA, with far more than one-third inappropriately sheltered (including sheltered and displaced status) and far less than 10% of state agencies delivering the result of enhanced or assistance programs for communities (THDA, 2000). Individuals with occurring SA/MH visual impairments are almost always denied permission or discharged preemptively in both MH and A&D support services, making them far more prone to homelessness, as per national statistics ( Goldman, Ridgely & Willenbring, 1990). The healthcare insurance project has little effect.

Drake as well as Wallach (1989) discovered that A&D use was strongly correlated with homelessness in a longitudinal study of hospital aftercare. In addition, more than half of both the dually given a diagnosis subgroup was homeless inside of six months of hospital discharge. Recent social pressures, such as healthcare legislation, are putting excessive pressure on just this vulnerable group. Because of the prevalence of numerous disruptive, often interactive impairments, our homeless tenants with co-occurring disabilities are now at a greater risk for co-morbidities (Drake et al., 2001; Osher, Drake & Wallach, 1991).

Because of it’s direct negative impacts of SA/MI on primary caregivers, finances, as well as the desire to keep stable accommodation, co-occurrence has an impact on broader family and wealth, raising the likelihood of poverty (Belcher, 1989; Datallo & Benda, 1988; Lamb & Lamb, 1990). According to the NIAAA, nearly half to fifty percent of the homeless have serious alcoholism, while 23 percent to 37 percent have substance addiction problems, and a large amount has such a mental disorder (1992).

As per recent estimates, co-occurrence is as high as 50%, making the homeless the largest and most problematic subgroup, putting fair demands on overstressed MH health & A&D medical systems (DeLeon et al., 1999). According to a Directorate-General on Disability study from 2000, are amongst poor individuals who have SMI, although Drake (1991) describes concurrent disability as just a primary indicator of homelessness, and approximately half of the population with co-occurring disabilities experiencing homelessness in the previous six months.

Whenever a person becomes homeless, he or she is much less likely to receive treatment through existing SA/MH treatment services (Fischer, 1990). Conventional healthcare models seldom have the most required services, such as a range of intensities & lengths, aggressive outreach, and accommodation (McGlynn et al., 1993; Morse et al., 1992). Though Tennessee statistics indicate that 30-40% of the homeless population has SMI (point estimates range from 6,566 to 14,000 – THDA, 2000), findings also show that co-occurring disorders among the needy have been under – a failure to receive a range of needed services, as well as our state system’s failure to adequately collect incidence statistics about these maladies.

Explanation of the Project

Foundations can access field-tested programs for providing comprehensive care. We have shown our ability to successfully implement programs that meet quality and timeliness criteria for individuals affected by co-occurring conditions, especially those with long histories of homelessness.

The project Introducing Dual Diagnosis Programs for Clients with Serious Mental Illness proposes an evidence-based model of comprehensive treatment and services that integrates protocols from the CMHS-toolkit guideline for an integrated team platform (Drake et al., 2001). Loners on Main Road (SAMHSA, 2003) provides a national strategy and systematic framework for addressing homelessness between individuals with multiple MI and SA disorders, specifically through organized programs of rehabilitation, accommodation, including assistance – that include critical components like outreach – and it is in response to requests from the National Review Panel on Homelessness and Severe Mental Illness – which “has existed for many years and scrutiny, not just for those with severe mental illnesses, but also for those of us with “co-occurring mental illnesses and substance use disorders.” According to SAMHSA’s collaborative demonstration projects, coordinated treatment of co-occurring disorders reduces A&D use, homelessness, and the severity of MH symptoms (CSAT and CMHS , 2000). We will integrate our methods with the 10 principles of Assertive Community Care as illustrated in the Toolbox, Moving Assertive Community Treatment Into Establishing, with the modifications mentioned below (Phillips et al., 2001).

  • The Number of Cases: We suggest a more compatible model with funding systems but with lower ratios (1:15) as well as more intensive care when assessing sustainability choices through local and state funding.
  • External Resources Are Used to Provide the Following Services: External services would be needed to address a wide variety of service requirements that are not often served on-site State legislation, for example, mandates that hospitalization screenings be performed by a single login. Where required, our care team will use established relationships and collaborations with external organizations to coordinate service delivery and improve access to essential resources. They will also establish working relationships with clients and accompany them to services offered off-site
  • Concentrate on Building Trust and Reducing the Client’s Strain: Toolkit work on assertive community treatment teams records visual literacy of ACT types in which ACT groups were considered to be manipulative, especially when coping with recent drug abuse, hospital admissions, arrests, and much more serious symptoms. It also applies to a previous study wherein one out of every ten participants felt the procedure was just too coercive (Philips et al., 2001; Rosenheck and Neale, 2000; McGrew et al., 1996). Exploitation and apprehension directed at healthcare professionals who have historically struggled to provide appropriate healthcare care towards this community can make a team approach seem threatening and counterproductive. As a result, outreach and interaction activities are initiated by 1-2 members to combat distrust, establish trustworthy relationships, and reduce, as needed, the frequency of interactions. Participants are not overwhelmed.
  • Curriculum for Joint Commitment: While staffing strategies, caseloads, services, and other parameters can be changed, genuinely care planning cannot operate without competitive compensation. Probably the most important problem is the clinical team’s ability to provide consistent messages to the consumer. When they collapse (as is frequently the situation in segmented traditional SA and MH treatment programs), the customer is left to forge their own road to recovery. We will practice initially and periodically using the Structured Training Course (ITC, a one-week integrated training with pre-post measures), which includes integrated care instruction, the willingness to change template, behavior change, dual assessment, and assertive community treatment techniques. We will also administer the Mueser Implementation Fidelity Measure [Mueser, 2003] per 90 days during the first year, and no less than once a year thereafter (retaining the option for quarterly administration if indicated).
  • The Care Continuum: Participants can obtain additional resources from such internal services if necessary while staying involved and connected to the assertive community treatment group to ensure the quality of care.
  • Employee Specialization: The availability of experts on a multidisciplinary team facilitates an interactive peer-education framework and sharing of information. These trained members of the team also ensure that proper care and treatment are offered for a wide range of diverse needs, such as voc rehab, housing, psychiatry, counseling, and nursing.

For engaging people who are homeless with co-occurring drug use and mental health conditions, recovery programs incorporate critical evidence-based elements of Integrated Treatment (Drake et al., 2001), ACT (Phillips et al., 2001), and Service Structure Components (SAMHSA Blueprint, 2003).

Criticism and Acclaim

ACT has a long track record of progress for high-priority program users in a number of regional and operational contexts, as demonstrated by an increasing body of comprehensive outcome evaluation reports. Per the SAMHSA, NAMI, as well as the Committee on Certification of Treatment Centers, among other recognised arbiters, a scientific proof practice capable of universal dissemination.

However, assertive group treatment and similar service approaches are not widely lauded. According to Patricia Spindel and Jo Anne Nugent, the Program of Assertive Community Treatment (PACT) paradigm and many other case management approaches have no important analysis of how emotionally rewarding (as opposed to socially controllable) they are. According to these authors, PACT does not meet the criteria for being an advocacy strategy for “working with marginalized, marked, and stigmatized people.” They also argue the PACT is lacking in a philosophical basis that stresses real individual empowerment.

They claim that there is a large body of research challenging how human resources are delivered, but that this research is inconclusive. “PACT may be nothing more than a means of transporting the hospital or organization’s social control and biomedical functions to the population,” Spindle and Nugent write. PACT would not meet the bill with a national mental health sector that tends to favor a more progressive approach.” As a result of the damage reduction/housing scheme, several questions have arisen. The first version of the model, which was released in the late 2010s. Some doctors and dual diagnosis clinicians worry that the paradigm creates a healthy environment for elevated opioid use, which might lead to more overdoses and even death; they’re waiting for the findings of an observational analysis to confirm their concerns.

PACT has also been chastised by Tomi Gomory of Florida State University. He writes, “Proponents of PACT make several claims for this intensive recovery package, including reduced hospitalization, overall cost, and clinical symptomatology, as well as increased participant retention, vocational, and social functioning.” A reanalysis of the controlled laboratory research, however, reveals that none of these claims are supported by scientific evidence.” [Page 124] The essential characteristics of PACT, according to Gomory, are “A high level of power, assertiveness, or provocation may be defined as coercion.

Reduced hospitalization in ACT, for example, can be achieved easily by having an administrative decision rule that prevents ACT patients from being admitted to the hospital regardless of symptomatic behaviour (the patients are held and handled in the community). In contrast, patients in routine care are hospitalized regularly. When this law is absent, evidence indicates that ACT has little effect on hospitalization when compared to standard care.” Ronald J. Diamond, a Madison psychiatrist, has backed up the claim: “Coercion has become possible due to the advancement of Services for Assertive Community Treatment (PACT), assertive community treatment (ACT) teams, and other mobile, continuous treatment programs. Gomory has also argued that technical enthusiasm for the medical model, rather than any direct benefit to clients, is the critical driver of PACT growth. 

Gomory said that PACT is inherently deceptive, which Test and Stein refuted. In the specialist journal Psychological Care, the research arguing to justify it is statistically invalid, and Gomory responded to their response. Moser and Bond examine coercion and the wider concept of “government oversight” in a discussion of evidence from 23 ACT services. (practices in which the care staff retains supervisory power over the patients).

According to their report, “agency management” varies considerably between programs, and it may be especially strong in people with schizophrenia who also have active substance use issues. A recently reviewed book co-authored by Gomory has brought to the public’s attention various care violations allegedly caused by treatments described in the book as “coercive.” Therefore, he recommended assertive community treatment.