Mental health stigma or mental illness is rampant across the globe. According to our most recent survey, 58% of Americans think that smoking marijuana must be legalized (1). Within this same time interval, while most Americans are competent with the fact that mental illness or mental health stigma is a biological condition, a majority of Americans also maintain that they do not wish to have a neighbour or family member facing difficulties regarding mental illness (2).
The data on mental illness suggests that many individuals suffering from mental illness do not receive treatment, instead, they attempt to self-medicate in ways that may not be effective and actually aggravate their mental illness.
Earlier this year, the Journal of the American Medical Association reported that approximately one in ten Americans have a history of lifelong addiction to drugs (3). Researchers used data from the 2012-2013 related to mental illness of National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III to carry out a study that involved in-person interviews with 36,309 people. A variety of substances were used including alcohol, opiates, club drugs, cocaine, hallucinogens, heroin, non-heroin opioids, sedative/tranquilizers, and solvent/inhalants in the report.
The mental illnesses connected to 12-month drug use disorder diagnosis or mental illness such as major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders. There is also a connection between lifetime drug use disorders and generalized anxiety disorders, panic disorders, and social phobia.
It is estimated that about a fifth of people with a history of drug abuse have sought treatment. The authors argued that, “The population is less inclined to view drugs as mental mental illness and dangerous or disapprove of specific kinds of drug use (such as marijuana), which is because the government is increasingly enforcing laws regulating drug use in line with these perceptions.”
However, the latest NESARC-III studies on diseases and co-occurring disorders indicate that drug use disorders, including the most recent DSM-5 nosology, are severe illnesses affecting hundreds of millions of people in the United States.
Mental illness implies the unwinding of the brain and the shortfall of mental problems or mental illness. It for the most part identifies with the intellectual, conduct, and enthusiastic prosperity of the brain. Numerous creators have depended on Goffman’s hypothesis of shame on emotional well-being which centres around crediting the one that is profoundly undermined in social and individual life from a typical individual to the spoiled, limited one. Crocker Major and Steele in 1998, p.505 proposed that these mental illness marks of disgrace, for the most part, happen in the specific social setting, where an individual is devaluated and his character is attempted to be squeezed. Disgrace can be isolated into two classifications as depicted by Corrigan, Social Stigma, and Self Stigma.
Social disgrace is associated with an individual living in a specific culture. He is debased for his character, looks, or some negative disposition towards him from some specific cultural gathering. Self-shame is related to the contribution of the convictions of a person in a specific line.
While people report that dread of antagonistic social permeability and expected judgment from others considered in their choice to look for help from administrations (Boyd et al., 2007; Johnson, Mills, DeLeon, Hartzema, and Haddad, 2009), exploring this relationship tentatively would recognize how this happens. Parks, Sweden, Singer, and Foti, in 2006 cases that other than the monetary pressing factor, need to confront more excessively death rates than those with a solid psyche.
In this day and age, there are numerous obstructions and obstacles that individuals need to confront while treating them. They are as yet not having a legitimized pace. As indicated by Rosenberg (2010) states that when contrasted with the previous years the interest for mental health stigma, emotional well-being and substance misuse treatment has grown up to 20% as the states are currently attempting to cut their discoveries for mental illness issues.
Clinical benefit is gigantic, expansive covering the extent of private and public ventures that are fundamental, discretionary contemplations.
For example, individuals who experience real injury, for instance, devour wounds or falls, consistently have AOD use issues. In any case, when given hurt patients, fundamental thought specialists may not assess for AOD use issues, and mental illness
At crisis center delivery, the workforce routinely experiences issues overseeing AOD abuse and enthusiastic wellbeing concerns. Patients are to a great extent delivered inappropriately with lacking delivery organizing and linkage with aftercare organizations.
Staff in mental prosperity and AOD abuse treatment frameworks consistently don’t have even the remotest clue of getting to clinical frameworks and thus are unequipped for giving information and advancing preparation.
“A Disease Just Similar to Other”; Link with Mental Health Stigma
It is not surprising that many people who suffer from mental illness, and mental health stigma are unable to talk openly about their problems. Many Americans are anything but understanding. According to a report published by The American Journal of Psychiatry in 2010, general perceptions of schizophrenia, addiction, and alcohol significantly improved between 1996 and 2006. It is the first study of its kind in the United States, where responses were collected by the General Social Survey questionnaire on mental illness topics, as well as responses to vignettes drawn from the same survey.
It demonstrated that the American public has begun to recognize mental illness is a neurobiological disorder, but they still perceive it as a stigma, thanks in part to the “A Disease Like Any Other” movement. “
The majority of the population tends to have difficulty interacting with those in the schizophrenia group (62% for schizophrenia, 74% for alcohol intake), and are unable to socialise with those in the alcohol group (52% for schizophrenia, 54% for alcohol intake). Those people who remain in the program for at least five years have a greater probability of remaining in the program. Twenty-two percent to thirty-one percent of those people who remain in the program for at least five years are marital. Although depressed individuals or mental health stigma people have a marginally smaller percentage in most groups, the number is still drastically higher than the world’s population in general (2).
It is possible that these forms of discrimination will end up being internalised, leading to the development of self-stigma. A report published in 2014 by the Association for Psychological Science states that “people with mental illness can begin believing the negative thoughts expressed by others, and as a result, they may think they are unable to recover, are not worthy of care, are dangerous, or are responsible for their illness, and mental illness stigma” (4).
Some People Self-Medicate as A Result of Stigma and Ignorance
Despite the fact that the Americans with Disabilities Act should have safeguards on its front, people will lose their jobs if their boss falsely accuses them of having a mental illness. A lot of people suffer from anxiety disorders, depression, or bipolar disorder who have a tendency to ‘over medicate’ and self-medicate by having a beer, which would help them to ease the symptoms as well as experiencing an overwhelming prevalence of marijuana use that is only growing.
Researchers have found that self-medicating with marijuana is actually not only ineffective, but can even be harmful, to some extent. There has already been a lot of research done on how mental illnesses affect people who consume alcohol self-medicating, but it is only recently that studies have been done on how marijuana affects mental illnesses.
A paper used a number of years ago by authors at The University of California San Diego, San Diego, found that medical cannabis use in the United States has increased due to widespread consumption of marijuana, and moreover, the paper indicates that the provision of medical marijuana may lead to significant health effects (5).
There’s no specific diagnosis of marijuana dependence in the DSM-5, but excessive marijuana use is almost always classified as a mental illness, so doctors who tell their patients not to use marijuana are commonly seen as being judgemental and have mental health stigma.
As a result of a patient’s use of marijuana, however, a clinician may not be able to provide a consistent picture of the patient’s type and nature of mental illness. Those who smoke cigarettes as part of a coping mechanism, while some marijuana users do not smoke cigarettes as a means of coping with stress, are found to be stressed (6).
The study performed by Cell Reports has shown that so many people have been using marijuana as a self-medicating symptom for anxiety and depression. According to the study, people who engage in this behavior might have deficient levels of endocannabinoid-like substances in their brain (7).
A professor of psychiatry at Vanderbilt University in Tennessee has explained why smoking marijuana to self-medicate is dangerous, and how the use of synthesized drugs to correct chemical imbalances in the brain may be a safer solution in an article published in VICE. “What you find is that when people overuse pot, the THC binds really closely to the cortex, and it’s hard to unbind, resulting in desensitisation. Human research has recently demonstrated that this occurs in high-level marijuana, or even heavy use. People who use marijuana daily are shooting themselves in the foot and that is why they turn to more drugs to obtain the same high as opposed to switching to other drugs on a regular basis” (8).
Disarming Stigma with Laughter and Being Openly “Out”
Bringing support to people with mental illnesses is the most difficult obstacle that the United States faces in putting an end to the cruel stigma that they face in the workplace, in healthcare, in public policy, and also within their own communities.Recent stigma research indicates that an emphasis on skill development and training, along with cultural sensitivity may provide a positive approach to eradicating public stigma, according to a 2010 study on mental health stigma (2).
The mental illness have recently been linked to stigmas associated with abortions and illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and cancer. It was only by “coming forward” and telling their stories of achievement and contribution that those disadvantaged people were able to achieve success.
David Granirer, a comedian, is one of the individuals who uses the “Cause-and-Effect” Method. A woman suffering from depression, Granirer, runs a workshop called “Stand Up for Mental Mental” for individuals with mental illnesses.
It was recently reported by USA Today that Dr. Dobbensky said in addition to humour being effective as a therapeutic tool for people with mental illnesses, it is also dispelling myths about those with mental illnesses being dangerous and unlikable.
In an interview with USA Today, Grandirer asked, “How often do you hear those terms used in the same sentence as laughter and schizophrenia?” People with names such as bi-polar and schizophrenic are considered humorous, likeable, and brave by audiences”.
Jessica Dawson, another of his students, said in an interview with USA Today she felt greatest guilt on days she heard voices and went through electroconvulsive therapy. In her performance, she joked, “Before I had electric shock, I thought I was Jesus Christ”.
It has been reported in USA Today that, according to a psychology professor at the Illinois Institute of Technology, Patrick Corrigan, a new study suggests that, when interacting with people with mental disorders, and mental health stigma in person, dispelling myths is two to three times more effective than education alone. “We have reduced the shame associated with being gay by seeing individuals coming forward. It wasn’t that I grew up watching anti-stigma programs, in middle school.”
The Global Burden of Disease study recognizes and gives assessments to substance use passing’s through the two pathways. The first is an immediate passing from a ‘substance use problem’. A substance use problem is described by meeting drug reliance rules as characterized by the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10).4 Alcohol reliance or illegal medication reliance (which incorporates narcotics, cocaine, amphetamines, and cannabis) are remembered for substance use issues; passing’s from these issues can be viewed as medication gluts, with the terms being utilized reciprocally in the examination literature.
The subsequent pathway is aberrant: drug use can expand untimely danger from a scope of causes.6 Alcohol and illegal medication use, for instance, builds the danger of unexpected passing from sicknesses and injury, including self-destruction, liver illness, hepatitis, and HIV. Smoking is a key danger factor for lung and different types of malignancy, coronary illness, stroke, and diabetes and it can leads to mental health stigma.
- 1. Jones, Jeffrey. In U.S., 58 percent back legal marijuana use. (2015, Oct. 21). Gallup. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2015, from http://www.gallup.com/poll/186260/back-legal-marijuana.aspx
- 2. Pescosolido, B. et al. A Disease Like Any Other? A Decade of Change in Public Reactions to Schizophrenia, Depression, and Alcohol Dependence. (2010, November). The American Journal of Psychiatry. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2015, from http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09121743.
- 3. Grant, B. et al. Epidemiology of DSM-5 Drug Use Disorder. Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions—III. (2015, Nov. 18). JAMA Psychiatry.
- 4. Corrigan, P. et al. The Impact of Mental Illness Stigma on Seeking and Participating in Mental Health Care. (2014, Aug. 1). Association for Psychological Science. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2015, from http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/publications/mental-illness-stigma.html
- 5. Sussman, Norman, et al. Chronic Marijuana Use and the Treatment of Mentally Ill Patients. (2003, Sept. 1). Primary Psychiatry. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2015, from http://primarypsychiatry.com/chronic-marijuana-use-and-the-treatment-of-mentally-ill-patients/
- 6. Green, BE. Et al. Marijuana use and depression. (2000, March). Journal of Health and Social Behavior. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10750321
- 7. Shonesy, B. et al. Genetic Disruption of 2-Arachidonoylglycerol Synthesis Reveals a Key Role for Endocannabinoid Signaling in Anxiety Modulation. (2014, Nov. 26). Cell Reports. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2015, from http://www.cell.com/cell-reports/fulltext/S2211-1247(14)00955-3
- 8. Curry, Colleen. (2014, Dec. 8). Cure for Anxiety and Depression in Self-Medicating Marijuana Users Could be on the Horizon. Vice News. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2015, from https://news.vice.com/article/cure-for-anxiety-and-depression-in-self-medicating-marijuana-users-could-be-on-the-horizon
- 9. Szabo, Liz. (2015). Cost of Not Caring: Stigma Set in Stone. Mentally Ill Suffer in Sick Health System. USA Today. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2015, from http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/06/25/stigma-of-mental-illness/9875351/
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