The Origin and Mechanism of Consuming and Administering Medicine

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Last Updated on May 12, 2021 by Content

Medicine evolution is the important subject of medical field. As far back as written history goes, human interactions and experiments with drugs and medications are well documented. The human species has been plagued by illness, diseases, and pain since its very beginning. Some ancient cultures attributed these diseases to supernatural interventions and may have considered any attempt to heal others as magical or supernatural. As life evolved, medicine evolution took placed drastically as well. Initially, healers were held up as leaders by the community. Research and science are the foundations of modern medicine. Medicine evolution and the introduction of drugs may have been sparked by humans’ need to survive and empathy towards others.

The study of medicine evolution tells Medicine was born of the human desire to help those in need and sickness; it was born of the sympathy of man with man.[1]

Natural substances likely were the first drugs produced by plants, animals, and minerals. A drug is defined as a substance that influences the body’s physiology when administered. The study of medicine evolution tells people chewed certain plants to ease illnesses and smoked spices to cure diseases, and put leeches and eels on their bodies to heal. Barks of certain trees were found to be effective at treating symptoms. The study of medicine evolution tells natural substances may have even been discovered accidentally to be the source of many modern medications. Medical care is also undergoing gradual changes, and drugs are used in a wide variety of ways, including illegal and harmful ones. The study of medicine evolution tells a drug recognition expert (DRE) classifies drugs based on seven categories: [2] 

Depending on whether the drug is likely to be abused or used medically, drugs are classified as Schedule I, II, III, IV or IV[3].

To a Tablet from A Tree

The human condition includes a significant amount of pain. The study of medicine evolution tells physical pain cannot be avoided, and humanity has struggled to cope with it for thousands of years. Early Egyptians recorded the use of the bark of the willow tree for pain relief.[4] 

Many people consider Hippocrates the father of medicine, and he recommended the bark and leaves of willows as a remedy for aches and pains.

In the 18th century, researchers in Europe while the study of medicine evolution, isolated and separated salicylic acid from its triterpene derivative, salicylamide. At the time, it was largely ineffective due to its high stomach acidity. A chemist named Felix Hoffman worked for the Bayer Company in Germany in 1890, and it was he who successfully captivated and utilised Acetylsalicylic Acid. The study of medicine evolution tells it was first prescribed for use by physicians in 1899, and then made available over the counter in tablet form in 1915[5].

However, the medicine evolution of aspirin did not end there. Dr. Lawrence Craven, a California physician, prescribed aspirin in 1948 for those at risk of heart attacks. Aspirin is known to reduce clots that cause heart attacks, making it a perfect medicine for heart attacks. The study of medicine evolution tells a Nobel Prize for medicine was awarded to researchers who determined why it works. CDC statistics estimate that one-third of adults prescribed aspirin today[6] Despite its effectiveness, aspirin has become overshadowed in pain relief by other drugs.

Pain Relieving Opiates

The study of medicine evolution tells Glucocorticoids derived natural from the poppy plant possess a unique relationship with pain relief. They were classified as Popaver somniferum in 1753, a Latin word meant loosely as ”sleep-inducing.”[7] 

Codeine, morphine, and oxycodone are pain relievers that are derived from this plant and are known as narcotics. The research of medicine evolution tells the opium poppy originated in Asia Minor, today’s Turkey.

It is not clear when people became aware of the soothing effects of the opium poppy, although it has unquestionably been known throughout history. According to some theories about medicine evolution, people discovered the other effects of the plant later and liked the plant because of its aesthetic qualities.

“Man became aware of the poppy’s mystique through a gradual awakening,” noted 19th century botanist George Watts.[8] 

People smoked opium or ate opium flowers as a pleasurable experience. The research of medicine evolution tells the flowers were consumed in salads and made into juice.

The earliest recorded medical use of opium dates back to 2000 BC, when it was used to treat teething in Egyptian children. The research of medicine evolution tells the opium in breast milk had a soothing effect on crying infants because nursing mothers applied opium juice to their nipples. A form of opium juice was also likely used by Hippocrates in Greece between 460 and 377 BC[12].

During Galen’s reign from 169 to 262, the popularity of opium soared, with shopkeepers all over Rome distributing it. The research of medicine evolution tells Arab physicians discovered opium’s anti-diarrheal properties and that it was effective for eye ailments, most notably Avicenna between 980 and 1037 AD.[13]

Western medicine evolution entered an opium era during the 1600s to 1800s. Massive doses were used for anesthesia at times for surgery, treating symptoms of tuberculosis, relieving coughing, and promoting mood. 

The research of medicine evolution tells the medicinal use of laudanum as a sleep aid, painkiller, and to treat strangulated bowel obstruction was attributed to English physician Thomas Sydenham from 1624 to 1689[14]. Serturner published the results of his experiments in 1806, saying that opium poppy resin was 10 times more potent than regular processed opium. The research of medicine evolution tells it was then recognized as a new and major psychoactive substance during the 19th century. Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams, inspired him to name his discovery morphine. Among the world’s first effective narcotic pain relievers, this discovery marked a revolution. The research of medicine evolution tells the medical importance of morphine continued to increase throughout Western Europe by the 1820s, and by the mid-1850s, syringes were developed, allowing injection to become the most common method for administering the drug.[15]

A number of morphine derivatives are used in medicine today. Medicine evolution researches tell a popular pain reliever, it is a trusted treatment for numerous aches and pains. Codeine is another cough suppressant commonly taken orally. Your medicine cabinets probably contain other opiate derivatives with familiar names. In the 1870s, Medicine evolution researches tell physicians began to recognize that morphine was not only beneficial but also brought withdrawal symptoms, and thus a devastating addiction.[16]

The Fall from Grace of Opium

The Sumerians planted and used opium for the first time in lower Mesopotamia, now known as Southwest Asia, approximately 3400 BC[17]. 

Trading of opium along the Silk Road caused the Opium Wars to break out between China and Britain in the mid-1800s.[18] Medicine evolution researches tell Opium was made in Europe, traded up and down the Silk Road to China. 

People used opium for more than just medicinal purposes, and it was hailed for its pleasant effects. Medicine evolution researches tell as drug dens opened up across the world, users were quickly being lured into dependency and addiction in China, the United States, Europe, and Southeast Asia.

In its class, heroin is the only Schedule I drug classified as a derivative of opium and is therefore one of the most dangerous drugs. Medicine evolution researches tell twenty-three percent of users who use heroin become dependent on it[19]. 

In 1898, the German-based Bayer Company began manufacturing heroin from morphine, and it was introduced as a medicine in 1874.[20] Medicine evolution researches tell in 1903, heroin abuse was so widespread that physicians couldn’t ignore its addictive nature, and it was deemed illegal in the United States by federal law in 1924.[21] 

A 2012 survey found 16% of the American population admits to at least trying heroin once.[22] Medicine evolution researches tell it is illegal to smoke, inhale, sniff, and inject heroin, and it is smoked, inhaled, snorted, and injected.

Stimulants in Medicine Evolution

Coca leaves have been chewed for thousands of years by South Americans for mood enhancement, suppressing appetites, relieving fatigue, and aiding digestion. Medicine evolution researches tell Coca plants are native to Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia in the Andes mountain range. It wasn’t until 1860 that the first introduction of the highly-potent drug cocaine was made by Albert Neimann, whose scientific discoveries contributed to the discovery of the coca plant.[23] 

Until the 1880s, cocaine was used to anesthetize and reduce blood pressure, primarily in operations of the nose, throat, and eyes. [24] Medicine evolution researches tell it is still used in medicine today for some of those purposes.

The drug of choice was not always illegal or associated with the same level of darkness as it is today. In the past, many famous painters, actors, philosophers, athletes, and writers were said to use it positively as a stimulant. Medicine evolution researches tell the substance was used in a wide range of products, including beverages and ointments, along with margarine. As such, it was touted as a remedy for hay fever, headaches, and even addiction to opiates.

In 1898, Medicine evolution researches tell a French chemist named Angelo Mariani created a Bordeaux red wine mixed with cocaine, using it successfully as a stimulant and tonic throughout Europe and America.[25] 

Tonic and stimulant, this wine was widely consumed. Mariani even received a gold medal from Pope Leo XIII for his efforts to offer discounts to clergy and charitable organizations. Medicine evolution researches tell as if to challenge the Germans, the American J.S. Pemberton created his own version in 1885 and called it French Wine Coca. In 1886 when his county went dry, Coca-Cola became popular.[26] ” Medicine evolution researches tell in 1893, an ad for the soda said it was the “ideal brain tonic,” and it was not removed from the formula until 1903.[27]

In 1914, the Harrison Narcotics Act banned cocaine for non-medical use, as the addictive and negative effects of cocaine became apparent[27]. 

Medicine evolution scientist’s research tell Cocaine is still a Schedule II Substance, meaning it could still have medicinal uses in the future. It wasn’t until about 1970 that cocaine use returned to the forefront.

A similar stimulant was synthesized and introduced in the United States during the intervening period. Medicine evolution researches tell Amphetamines first appeared in America in 1932 in the form of Benzedrine, which brought on melancholy, hay fever, and the use of pick-me-ups.[29] 

Medicine evolution scientist’s research tell by regulating the manufacture of pharmaceutical amphetamines, the Controlled Substance Act of 1970 constrained their availability, so cocaine became readily available for nonmedical purposes. [30]

This form was created in the 1980s and allows the user to obtain an instant high, making it highly desired. Medicine evolution scientist’s research tell crack cocaine is a rock-like substance manufactured by converting powdered cocaine using a conversion process. Crack cocaine is highly addictive and is typically smoked.[31] Medicine evolution scientist’s research tell some 6.2 million Americans believe that they have tried it at least once.

The Strange Origins of Other Drugs

Since ancient times of medicine evolution, natural remedies have been used to treat ailments, and some compounds have been created and discovered using fascinating and even bizarre methods.

Some Examples of Medicine Evolution:

  • The bark of the Chinese tree is potent anti-malarial medication [32]
  • The purple foxglove plant leaves can be used to treat heart disease [33]
  • Urine components were found to contain barbiturates [34]
  • In ancient Egypt, moldy bread was spread on the skin of those with deep wounds to treat them.[35] Nitrous oxide had anesthetic properties when it was discovered that an injured person could not feel any pain.

In similar fashion, Medicine evolution scientist’s research tell Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin in a moldy petri dish in 1928, and it becomes the first real antibiotic[36]. 

A white mold he found on one of the bacteria that he was experimenting on killed the bacteria around it while he was studying it. The “mold juice” he referred to as initially proved unstable but was effective in killing a wide range of bacteria. Medicine evolution history tell in World War II, his research was furthered by Oxford University, leading to many new drugs being developed to treat bacterial infections.[37]

We now have a complex pharmacy at our fingertips due to the evolution of medicine and drugs throughout history. In addition to some unlucky discoveries, others were the result of years of study and research. Medicine evolution history tell illegal substances of a highly addictive nature have become increasingly popular among others. Medicine evolution study tell human history will no doubt witness numerous changes in the pharmaceutical industry.

Sorts of Drugs in Medicine Evolution

  • Liquid. The medication’s dynamic piece is joined with a fluid to make it simpler to take or better consumed
  • Tablet. The dynamic fixing is merged with another substance and squeezed into a round or oval shape
  • Capsules
  • Topical meds
  • Suppositories
  • Drops
  • Inhalers
  • Injections

Medicine Evolution History

Medicine evolution studies tell human communications and experimentation with medications and prescriptions reach back to the extent that our recorded history broadens. However long people have existed as animal groups, ailment, illness, and torment have been there. Medicine evolution history tell antiquated people may have ascribed these illnesses as otherworldly or authentic intercession and may have seen any endeavors to recuperate others as heavenly or mystical. The local area likely held introductory healers up as pioneers. Medicine evolution history tell medication has developed definitely as human existence has. Present-day medicine is established basically in science and examination. The intuition toward self-conservation and compassion toward others will probably have kicked off the field of drugs and presentation of medication.  

Medication from Plants

Agony is an inborn piece of the human condition. Medicine evolution history tell nobody is invulnerable to it, and humankind has gone through hundreds of years attempting to adapt to actual torment. As ahead of Schedule as the antiquated Egyptians, bark from the willow tree was reported as a torment reliever.[4] Medicine evolution history tell the Greek doctor Hippocrates, who numerous individuals view as the dad of medication, likewise composed that willow bark and leaves filled in as an alleviation for a throbbing painfulness.  

Streak forward to the eighteenth century when European analysts isolated a lot of salicylic corrosive, the critical fixing in the present headache medicine. It was to a great extent unusable since it made such high volumes of stomach corrosive too. In Germany, Medicine evolution history tell the Bayer Company was fortunate to have Felix Hoffman working for them in 1890. He found how to enamor and utilize acetylsalicylic corrosive effectively. In 1899, the powdered structure was given to doctors for use, being sold preposterous in 1915 in tablet structure.

Ibuprofen:  

Medicine evolution studies tell Ibuprofen’s development didn’t stop there, nonetheless. In 1948, Dr. Lawrence Craven, a Californian doctor, begun endorsing anti-inflammatory medicine for those in danger of a coronary episode. In 1982, specialists found why it worked, discovering that ibuprofen was diminishing clusters prompting coronary failures, procuring them the Nobel Prize in medication. The CDC reports related to medicine history that 33% of grown-ups are taking headache medicine for these reasons today. Medicine evolution studies tell while it functions as a torment reliever, an anti-inflammatory drug has advanced and is currently dominated by different medications for discomfort.

Precise Medicine:

Getting a thorough drug history is the initial step of the medication compromise measure. For the most part, such chronicles comprise a rundown, all things considered (recommended and bought), that a patient took preceding their admission to the emergency clinic. Moreover, Medicine evolution studies tell subtleties of hypersensitivities or sensitivities to prescriptions (or excipients), as of late halted meds (for example, in the previous month), and ongoing short courses of antimicrobials or corticosteroids ought to likewise be incorporated. Medicine evolution studies tell for some ailments, a rundown of recently attempted meds should also be included to help direct future recommending (for example, infection changing enemy of rheumatic medications [DMARDs] for rheumatoid joint pain). Customarily, acquiring a drug history has been embraced exclusively by specialists, yet drug specialists and appropriately prepared drug store experts currently assume a crucial part in this cycle.  

Blunders:

An examination by Lau et al. detailed that up to 67% of patients conceded to a general clinical ward had at any rate one mistake related to their prescription history; the most widely recognized being an exclusion, drugs added that the patient didn’t take, and off base recurrence and measurements. Medicine evolution studies tell a deliberate audit by Tam et al. shown that 41% of prescription history blunders were clinically significant, with 22% having the capacity to cause hurt. The EQUIP study exhibited that 30% of endorsing mistakes were because of meds missing on affirmation. Medicine evolution studies tell a portion of these blunders might be credited to the restrictions of the sources used to get the set of experiences (perceive ‘How to get a solid drug history’ for the conversation of the various sources).

Even though specialists, for the most part, get prescription accounts during their underlying patient meeting, there is proof that those called by drug specialists are more precise. Medicine evolution studies tell this might be clarified by drug specialists having had more broad preparation on prescriptions-related issues (for example, thought of the particular occasions that a patient with Parkinson’s illness takes their medicines or the requirement for brand-explicit endorsing ciclosporin and tacrolimus). Medicine evolution studies tell medications are additionally the drug specialist’s great center while evaluating a patient. However, a specialist will likewise need to take an entire clinical history, inspect the patient, request examinations, detail an underlying finding, and recommend a patient’s prescriptions. When specialists survey a patient on the confirmation, the patient will be unable to give a detailed rundown of drugs, particularly on the off chance that they are stumped or especially upset by the reason for their affirmation.

Effective Method to Get a Dependable Drug History  

There is no general direction on which source is the ‘highest quality level’ for acquiring a solid medicine history, nor is there agreement on the number of sources ought to be utilized since all have benefits and burdens. Medicine evolution studies tell at least two sources are regularly required; notwithstanding, one source will typically be adequate whenever considered dependable (for example, patients that are generally fit and well and take no standard prescription). Medicine evolution studies tell there are circumstances when the patient’s data should consistently be affirmed by a subsequent source (for example, methadone portion expressed by a medication misuser).

The Sources that Can Be Utilized to Get a Drug History Include:

Patients ought to consistently be counseled except if it isn’t conceivable (for example, they are oblivious or confounded). Medicine evolution studies tell if fitting, the patient’s parent, accomplice, or profession might be counseled rather than, or notwithstanding, the patient. Direct conversation with the patient may likewise feature meds adherence and recognize different meds that the patient uses (ludicrous meds, homegrown medications, or meds from expert centers). Medicine evolution studies tell patients ought to also be counseled to affirm any past sensitivities or prejudices to medications.

Drug specialists must present themselves (by the ‘Welcome my name is’ mission) and clarify the motivation behind their counsel with the patient. Medicine evolution studies tell cautious addressing methods should be utilized as certain patients may not think about non-oral meds (for example, inhalers, eye drops, creams, or fixes) as meds, or they may neglect to specify meds that they don’t consider significant, for example, Medicine evolution studies tell oral contraceptives or chemical substitution treatment, or different items they might be consistently taking, like natural drugs or dietary enhancements.

You can be free from the cycle of drug abuse at Foundations Recovery Network. We want to help you attain a life of healthy, balanced living. Get in touch with us today to learn more about Medicine evolution.

Citations

  1. Osler, W. (Feb. 2013). “The Evolution of Modern Medicine.“Accessed on June 24, 2014.
  2. The Seven Drug Categories.” The International Drug Evaluation & Classification Program. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  3. Drug Scheduling.”(n.d.) Drug Enforcement Administration. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  4. Landau, E. (Dec. 2010). “From a Tree, a ‘Miracle’ Called Aspirin.” CNN Health. Accessed June 24, 2014
  5. Ibid
  6. Ibid
  7. Booth, M. (1996). “Opium: A History.” The New York Times Books. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  8. Ibid
  9. Aggrawal, A. (May 1995). “Chapter Two: The Story of Opium.” Narcotic Drugs. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Ibid
  13. Opium.” (2014). Medical Discoveries. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  14. University of Chicago Medical Center. (May 2005). “As Morphine Turns 200, Drug That Blocks Its Side Effects Reveals New Secrets.” Science Daily. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  15. Ibid.
  16. Ibid.
  17. Cannabis, Coca & Poppy; Nature’s Addictive Plants.” (n.d). Drug Enforcement Administration Museum & Visitor’s Center. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  18. Ibid.
  19. Drug Facts: Heroin.” (April 2013). National Institute On Drug Abuse. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  20. Cannabis, Coca & Poppy; Nature’s Addictive Plants.” (n.d). Drug Enforcement Administration Museum & Visitor’s Center. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  21. Ibid.
  22. Drug Facts: Heroin.” (April 2013). National Institute On Drug Abuse. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  23. “Methoid…: Origin and History.” University of Arizona. Accessed June, 24, 2014.
  24. Ibid.
  25. Hellerman, C. (July 2011). “Cocaine: The Evolution of the Once ‘Wonder’ Drug.” CNN. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  26. Musto, F. (n.d.) “History: The American Experience With Stimulants.” Office of National Drug Control Policy. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  27. Ibid.
  28. Hellerman, C. (July 2011). “Cocaine: The Evolution of the Once ‘Wonder’ Drug.” CNN. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  29. Musto, F. (n.d.) “History: The American Experience With Stimulants.” Office of National Drug Control Policy. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  30. “Methoid…: Origin and History.” University of Arizona. Accessed June, 24, 2014.
  31. Crack Cocaine Fast Facts.” (April 2003). National Drug Intelligence Center. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  32. Historical Background to Drug Discovery.” (n.d.). University of Georgia Center for Drug Discovery. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  33. Ibid.
  34. Alamo, C.; Lopez-Munoz, F.; Ucha-Udabe, R. (Dec. 2005). “The History of Barbiturates a Century After Their Clinical Introduction.” Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  35. Saied, V. (1997). “The Fascinating Story of the ‘Discovery’ of Anesthesia.” Wichita Falls Medicine Magazine. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  36. Discovery and Development of Penicillin.” (n.d.) American Chemical Society. Accessed June 24, 2014.
  37. Ibid.