Impact of Alcohol on Pregnant Women

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Last Updated on April 28, 2021 by

The moment pregnancy addictions started, then the unborn’s health and the mother who’s pregnant are indistinguishably linked between them. However, different scientists decade ago explained that the placenta is the only thing that can protect the baby from any toxins in the women’s pregnant mother’s blood circulation during her prenatal period nowadays. They all see that this placenta is extremely permeable through a lot of drugs. On the other hand, this placenta will metabolite presence to cross the pregnant women’s blood into the unborn babies directly. This clearly shows that if the mother who’s pregnant will take drugs, the unborn babies will automatically get those. Some of the substances like; alcohol is considered safe for most adults to use under this moderation. However, these drugs for the child’s unborn and are developing, even a very small amount of the drugs will have a major effect and show a change that will be changed. As the unborn babies are at the stage where they don’t have the fully developed liver or the metabolism, that they will be unable to properly process the drugs which the pregnant mother is using because the developing stage, so they won’t be able to have a process of the drugs when they go into the body. In pregnancy addictions Once the medications used by the mother and entered the body, then it will start damaging the whole body of the unborn like; drugs will act as a toxin thing to the unborn babies that the medicines will affect the development of the child’s entire body like it will badly affect the heart, lungs of the unborn babies, liver, brain and all the other organs of the body which will affect the development of the newborn babies. Pregnancy addictions changes will be the most severe one when it happened during the pregnancy’s primary trimester period. Currently, the baby’s brain consumes to produce in a way that brain grows just a trickle of the cells addicted to the context of a nervous system to the unborn babies. The brain develops into the framework of a nervous system compared to the other billions of cells. Now the nervous system cells will be the cells that have to be mature into the right shape that migrates into the perfect position. The nerve cells wire up into how it has the connections to up to approximately 10 thousand of the other cells. So, it’s mandatory to occur properly for this purpose that each of the cell necessity is directed by numerous of the genetic factor in pregnancy addictions, by the hormones, by the signaling substances as well. on the same side, if drugs are used, then they will interfere with the process that will automatically cause some of the nerves cells to grow in a way that will be incorrect, due to the drugs nerves cell will wire up poorly, or this may happen that unborn babies will 

Drugs Impact on Unborn Babies

On the unborn babies, the drugs’ impact will vary depending on which type of drugs are used by the pregnant mother and how much and quantity the mother is using the drugs. The drugs will affect the unborn kid that it ranges from understated like it will cause exertion in paying consideration to the classes that will affect their grades in schools. Pregnancy addictions period may cause the unborn child to be disabled and will like a mental mentally disabled person.

Despite all the effects mentioned above that can affect unborn babies’ health and make them disable, women still take and frequently use drugs during their pregnancy addictions. The ‘Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)’ founded in the month that was the previous estimate that women of the age 15 to 44 age, who are pregnant, have a percentage up to 8.5% alcohol their pregnancy addictions period. The women of the age 15 to 44 used to smoked cigarettes, and their percentage is about 15.9%. The women who used illegal drugs during the pregnancy addictions period is having a percentage of about 5.9%. 

The estimate shows that approximately 4oo thousand children are exposed to tobacco in pregnancy addictions. According to the forecast, there are 225 thousand children exposed to all the illegal drugs each year. Each year 40 thousand cases are added to FASD, which stands for “fetal alcohol spectrum disorders,” in which all are those child’s that are exposed to alcohol and are large in number.

Reasons for Using Drugs in Pregnancy addictions 

To understand why women used drugs during pregnancy addictions, it’s hard to know why women used drugs during pregnancy addictions that will harm unborn babies. There are several explanations that why this capacity happen in the situation of the pregnancy;

The first case may be the pregnant mother is not having any information or know that she’s pregnant. On the other hand, some of the women don’t have info or notice that the morning sickness and missed periods are pregnancy addictions symptoms, so they continue taking drugs they are using. Most of the females don’t even identify, and they are pregnant, and this pregnancy addictions is from the months or the weeks after the conception period. This may be one reason why they continue taking drugs in this starting period of the pregnancy addictions. Though women come to know that she’s pregnant, they stop using drugs, and they quit using the drugs in the period of the pregnancy addictions. According to the estimate, there are lower rates of pregnant females who are pregnant and practice drugs, like “alcohol,” “tobacco,” and the “marijuana,” have a lesser rate than women who are not pregnant. This estimate also explains that the users’ drop-off rate is a quick process from the first trimester to the second trimester. Pregnant women are self-medicated, which leads to mental illness and trauma as well. However, many of the people who are having experience of self-medication are there under this condition. In pregnancy addictions Even once they want to quit this, all the woman automatically gets pregnant. So, the woman’s mental illness and trauma forced them to continue using. According to the study, it’s founded that among the women who are pregnant and entering the treatment program of drug abuse, approximately 73% of the women face and suffer from physical abuse at some time in their lives. And 71% of the women are those who are suffering from emotional abuse.

On the other hand, 45% of the women are those who suffer sexual abuse. There are 36% of the women who faced all of the above three abused. So, pregnant women think that taking a few drugs is okay and can help them hold other misconceptions. 

According to the study, In pregnancy addictions which was happening that the use of alcohol during the period of the pregnancy addictions, founded following types of damaging views that may consist of all of the things;

  • There are roughly types of alcohol that are harmless to take throughout the pregnancy addictions period.
  • Taking drugs in the third trimester does not harm unborn babies.
  • Some pregnant women asked that a small amount of alcohol is allowed and it’s okay, they confirmed from the doctors.

The Alcohol and The Pregnant Women

In the US, widely used drugs like; alcohol In pregnancy addictions. In Americans, about half of them are over the age of 12, drink and take the alcohol in 2020. Approximately one-quarter splurge the drug intake from previous last month. Through an estimate, they noticed that there are one from the fifteen who are heaving and noticed as a drinker during this last month. On the other hand, when pregnant women take alcohol and consume it, it results in how the alcohol crosses the placenta that affects the unborn babies’ development. The fetus will not be able to metabolize alcohol properly. When the pregnant mother takes drugs during pregnancy addictions, then the unborn babies will not metabolize the alcohol then. Through this, the unborn baby’s BAC will stay high, which is blood alcohol level. The alcohol intake by the pregnant mother can affect the sensitive part of the unborn babies In pregnancy addictions, such as the cells of the brain, this is not enough, but drugs like alcohol can affect other cells of the unborn babies to grow in a way that will affect other cells to grow incorrectly—the alcohol intake by the pregnant mother blood vessels in the placenta of the unborn babies. The alcohol will restrict the flow of the blood, and the alcohol will also affect how the supply of oxygen for the unborn will be less. Not only oxygen supply but the supply of nutrition will also below by the use of the alcohol by the pregnant mother. If the restriction turns to be severe, then there is a huge chance of miscarriage.

But on the same side In pregnancy addictions, by this all, if a child survey then there is a chance that the system of the unborn babies will be damaged. The systematic damage of the child will be at risk for the development of the child. According to the FASD, it is at an extreme level that the FASD can cause and affect the child so that the unborn babies will be mentally disabled. The prenatal alcohol will expose to the most common one that it will be preventable nongenetic and causes the intellectual disability to the unborn babies In pregnancy addictions. According to an estimation, one percent of the pretentious people by FASD because of the use of alcohol by the pregnant mother. 

Symptoms of FAS

Following are the symptoms of the FAS

  • The Birth Weight of The Babies Will Be Low in Pregnancy Addictions
  • Defected Heart of The Baby
  • Kidney Defects of The Baby in Pregnancy Addictions
  • The Baby May Have a Hearing Problem 
  • Facial Features Will Be Abnormal 
  • Cognitive Weakened Abilities in Pregnancy Addictions
  • Disabilities Like Lack of Learning
  • Impulsive Behavior 
  • Problems Like; Lack of Attention and Memory in Pregnancy Addictions
  • Poor Self-Control

The above-mentioned symptoms may have in FASD and have the following names, which are in variety (ARND, ARBD, FAE, ND-PAE, and PFAS). 

  FAS incur in children nine times. The care of the health of the children that without any of the FASD, and the cost of the FASD is approximately up to $2 million for people In pregnancy addictions. According to the study; 94 percent had mental health concerns eighty-three percent of grown-ups were incapable of living self-sufficiently evenly nine percent of grown person needed trouble in finding jobs In pregnancy addictions• sixty percent of those persons whose age is about twelve and awake had the issues that come under the legal issues fifty percent were self-confessed for inpatient care for psychological health issues or drug misuse or were imprisoned forty-three percent faces problems in their schools In pregnancy addictions. 

According to US Surgeon General

In pregnancy addictions No quantity of alcohol is harmless to drink during the time of the pregnancy addictions, according to the US Surgeon General. If a woman discovers she is pregnant after consuming alcohol, she should stop drinking right away to help reduce the damage. Due to the fact that approximately a partial of the births in the US are unexpected, females of reproductive age who are sexually full of life can effort with their doctors to minimize the chances of intake interfering with a prenatal period In pregnancy addictions.

Developing Child Nicotine and Tobacco 

Even though tobacco be located as common as spirits, it’s unmoving widely used; in 2012, around a sector of all Americans aged 12 and up used tobacco products. Just about half of pregnant women who smoke cigarettes give up the habit In pregnancy addictions. The babies who are exposed by their mother to the drugs having children who are having the 4 thousand chemicals that the tobacco has. Along with this, all of the carbon monoxide and the carcinogens are also made by the plants, burning of the plants. The drugs are substituted from the Nicotine, such as Nicotine is a patch and a type of e-cigarette that doesn’t have the carbon monoxide but have a high amount of Nicotine. Nicotine and other metabolites involve alcohol and the constrict vessels of the blood In pregnancy addictions. The blood vessels of the constrict involve in the placenta usually result in about thirty-eight percent of the reductions in the flow of the blood. The baby’s weight will be low because the pregnant mother takes drugs like Nicotine during the pregnancy addictions period. In pregnancy addictions Along with this all the problems the women and the baby’s will face like the premature pregnancy addictions and the complications, this all will result and faced by the huge risks because the pregnant mother regularly uses the drugs during the pregnancy addictions material. They are more at risk of the miscarriage of the babies because, at the time of the pregnancy period, the women regularly used Nicotine. Nicotine is the metabolites that are the toxins and too harmful for the babies and the women who are using the drugs in the time period the pregnancy addictions Nicotine will harm the baby slings, the baby’s brains cell will also be affected, and the risk of the disease like lung disease will be common in the baby’s whose mother regularly uses Nicotine during the pregnancy addictions time period. This is not enough, but the babies will face the problems in the rest of the lives that they will have behavioral impulsiveness. The children who are exposed to the drugs during the pregnancy addictions time period then there is a chance of the development of cleft palates. In pregnancy addictions Utero smoking is affected, and children are having a percentage of about twenty to thirty percent, like they will have low birth weight. The babies who are exposed to drugs at the start then they will be having a lot of issues, and the problems all will be resolved when the parents will pay approximately thirty-five hundred dollars per year for the car and the treatment of the children. The risk of infant death syndrome once the children who are exposed to the drugs are born. While having the five syndromes means the pregnant women intake more than twenty cigarettes a day during the pregnancy addictions period. The development of ADHD in these babies will be like that babies have the behavioral disorder and will be having obesity to get older. These babies will like to be addicted to Nicotine at their younger age. 

The intake of the smoke for the pregnant mother will be more and more toxic for the unborn babies. On the other hand, the pregnant mother uses Nicotine during the pregnancy addictions time period, which is too harmful to the babies. While taking Nicotine is the alternative source of the drugs, but it also hurts the same because Nicotine removes the carbon mono oxide and the other by-products of smoking. Nicotine also hurts and have damaged newborn babies because this will create problems for them. The pregnant mother cannot be left smoking during her pregnancy addictions period, but this makes it possible that the small amount of the drug’s use will have less amount on the fetus. This will only be possible if the pregnant mother will lower the dose of Nicotine. Lowering the dose of the Nicotine will be a thing that can replace the use of the cigarettes that pregnant women take ten times a day. The women who are pregnant or are expected to be pregnant should consult the doctor to have their babies normal. The women who cannot take quite the drugs during the pregnancy addictions time period should be asked the doctors, professionals, or the ones who give treatments to the newborns, just to avoid low weight at the time of birth and other disabilities.

Pregnancy Addictions and Illegal Drugs: 

Marijuana

Marijuana contains hundreds of chemicals, but tetrahydrocannabinol is the one responsible for the majority of its dynamic effects (THC) In pregnancy addictions. This drug works in the brain by simulating the effects of endocannabinoids, which are signaling molecules used by nerve cells.

Accordingly, the study stated that the endocannabinoids In pregnancy addictions, which are the issues that are responsible for rising and the guidance of the fetus’s cells of nerves, that will grow into the position that will be correct. The wire will be properly positioned in the cell and the THC effects with this procedure. According to another research, In pregnancy addictions the fetuses can be contributed through the marijuana-smoking pregnant women that nerve gets to the stage which is at end and hat were bundled in a way that it will be settled incorrectly. Stathmin-2, which is because of the low weight of the body and the lower level of the proteins, will be involved in a way that learning and memory formation will be affected. 

In pregnancy addictions for long time period, the mother who is exposed to be the marijuana and have the diversity of the belongings on his families who may be through parenthood and is young, following is the list of the effects:

  • Damages inabilities to solve a problem
  • Problems of memory 
  • Planning difficulties 
  • Hot temper ness 
  • Problems in paying attention 
  • The anxiety 
  • Increases the risk of use of tobacco in adult age.

Cocaine

In the 1980’s and 1990’s the crack of the epidemic, there was a series of reports that came out that describe that the babies who are exposed to cocaine are the ones who are severely damaged. However, the Hight of this epidemic of the 1980s and 1990s estimated that more than 100,000 kids have taken cocaine each year throughout the prenatal period. In another report, the children who are wrinkly undersized babies, having greyish skin and weak limbs, will be the ones who suffer in a way that they will be socially and intellectual disturbances In pregnancy addictions. 

Nowadays In pregnancy addictions, these reports have effects that are of cocaine, and this might be exaggerated. But this shows that after these reports, the result is that cocaine and its exposure to the babies will not be much harmful, and it’s subtle. Babies exposed to cocaine are the babies who are having low weight at the time of birth. The size of the head will be small. The birth length will be shorter than the normal babies. This will only happen if the babies are exposed to cocaine. In pregnancy addictions As these babies grew up, they have a more and more overlapping array of small deficiencies like that will suffer in a way that they will have a problem of intelligence, skills of languages, lack of attention, self-control, and abstract thinking. 

Methamphetamine

In pregnancy addictions, The longitudinal data may exits, basically on the outcomes of the kids are used to have the methamphetamines, equally due to the number of small studies that include the fact that the pregnant mother used drugs like; methamphetamines, and it is sure that if the mother uses methamphetamines, then she will use the other drugs at the same time as well. moreover, there is some evidence that shows that methamphetamines, exposures will result in risks for the babies and will increase the following risks:

  • The delivery of the newborn will be a premature delivery In pregnancy addictions
  • The placenta will be detached from the uterus disinterestedness of the placenta as of the uterus
  • The weight of the newborn will below normal In pregnancy addictions
  • The naps problems with the newborn will be there that they will be sleepless and wakefulness
  • The heart will defect In pregnancy addictions
  • The brains cells will also defect badly  

Heroin

If the mother who is pregnant uses the heroin and they use it regularly. Then the babies of that woman will directly be exposed to the heroin; her baby will develop heroin dependence and the mother because she uses it regularly in the pregnancy addictions. Once the babe is addicted to heroin, as the mother who’s pregnant uses it regularly, then the baby’s cycle will be disturbed and removed. If the pregnant woman, suddenly even and at that time the babe will face problems like that, the fetal abstinences syndrome. This fetal abstinence will increase until the end In pregnancy addictions, the baby’s birth, delivery time problem like premature delivery, the weight of the baby will below. When the baby of the heroin taker pregnant mother, then they will cut off the supply of the heroin from the mothers because it will cause effects that the NAS, which causes the following things at that time 

  • The crying unnecessary  
  • The newborn babies will have a high fever In pregnancy addictions
  • After the birth, the babies will feel irritated 
  • The babies will have problems like they will have tremors
  • Mostly after the use of the heroin during pregnancy addictions, the babies will have diarrhea
  • Suffers from the vomiting
  • The babies will have a slow weight and will grow slowly and gain as well
  • Seizures are common In pregnancy addictions
  • In some of the cases, the babies because the mother regularly use heroin will cause the death of the newborn babies 

To prevent NAS from the mother who’s pregnant and uses the heroin, she passed through the treatment known as buprenorphine. This will make the stabilization in the opiate and exposes and gets the low dose of the opiates. At the time of the newborn baby’s birth, the baby whose’s mom has taken heroin at the time of pregnancy addictions then the babe will be treated will the medications like it will involve buprenorphine, just to save the baby and taper it from the opiates. 

Prevention Goes a Long

No level will save alcohol, the drugs like cigarettes, or any other one while the mother is pregnant. On the other hand, it is that a difficult stage of life for the babies because by using alcohol and drugs, newborn babies will be completely absent, and the most priority of that time will be that the babe’s life will be protected against pregnancy addictions. 

Citations

[1] Samuelsen, G.B., Larsen, K.B., Bogdanovic,N., Laursen, H., Graem, N., Larsen, J.F., and Pakkenberg, B. (2003). “The Changing Number of Cells in the Human Fetal Forebrain and its Subdivisions: A Stereological Analysis.” Cerebral Cortex. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[2] Byrne, J.H. (n/a) “Introduction to Neurons and Neuronal Networks.” University of Texas Medical School at Houston. Accessed September 8, 2014.

[3] Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings.” (2013). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Accessed September 8, 2014.

[4] Rehan, V.K., Liu, J., Naeem, E., Tian, J., Sakurai, R., Kwong, K., Akbari, O., and Torday, J.S. (October 30, 2012). “Perinatal nicotine exposure induces asthma in second generation offspring.” BioMed Central Medicine. Accessed September 9, 2014.

[5] Keegan, J., Parva, M., Finnegan, M., Gerson, A., and Belden, M. (April 29, 2010). “Addiction in pregnancy.” Journal of Addictive Diseases. Accessed September 8, 2014.

[6] “About FASD.” (August 29, 2014). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Accessed September 8, 2014.

[7] “The NSDUH Report: Substance Use among Women During Pregnancy and Following Childbirth.” (May 21, 2009). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Accessed September 8, 2014.

[8] Velez, M.L., Montoya, I.D., and Campbell, J. (January 2006). “Exposure to violence among substance-dependent pregnant women and their children.” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. Accessed September 9, 2014.

[9] Elek, E., Harris, S.L., Squire, C.M., Margolis, M., Weber, M.K., Dang, E.P., and Mitchell, B. (June 28, 2013). “Women’s Knowledge, Views, and Experiences Regarding Alcohol Use and Pregnancy: Opportunities to Improve Health Messages.” American Journal of Health Education. Accessed September 9, 2014.

[10] Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings.” (2013). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[11] “Effects of Alcohol on a Fetus.” (2007). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[12] Lester, B.M., Andreozzi, L., and Appiah, L. (April 20, 2004). “Substance use during pregnancy: time for policy to catch up with research.” Harm Reduction Journal. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[13] “FASD: What Everyone Should Know.” (n/a). National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[14] Wattendorf, D.J. and Muenke, M. n (July 15, 2005). “Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.” American Family Physician. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[15] “Frequently Asked Questions about FASD.” (August 29, 2014). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[16] “About FASD.” (August 29, 2014). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[17] Ibid.

[18] “Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders By the Numbers.” (January 2006). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[19] U.S. Surgeon General. (2005) “A 2005 Message to Women from the U.S. Surgeon General: Advisory on Alcohol Use in Pregnancy.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[20] Ibid.

[21] Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings.” (2013). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[22] “The NSDUH Report: Substance Use among Women During Pregnancy and Following Childbirth.” (May 21, 2009). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[23] Lester, B.M., Andreozzi, L., and Appiah, L. (April 20, 2004). “Substance use during pregnancy: time for policy to catch up with research.” Harm Reduction Journal. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Wickstrom, R. (September 2007). “Effects of Nicotine During Pregnancy: Human and Experimental Evidence.” Current Neuropharmacology. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[26] Lester, B.M., Andreozzi, L., and Appiah, L. (April 20, 2004). “Substance use during pregnancy: time for policy to catch up with research.” Harm Reduction Journal. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[27] “Smoking and Pregnancy— What Are the Risks?” (July 2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[28] Wickstrom, R. (September 2007). “Effects of Nicotine During Pregnancy: Human and Experimental Evidence.” Current Neuropharmacology. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[29] Ibid.

[30] “Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy.” (December 2013). American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[31] Bruin, J.E., Gerstein, H.C., and Holloway, A.C. (March 25, 2010). “Long-Term Consequences of Fetal and Neonatal Nicotine Exposure: A Critical Review.” Toxicological Sciences. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[32] Tortoriello, G., Morris, C.V., Alpar, A., Fuzik, J., Shirran, S.L., Calvigioni, D., Keimpema, E., Botting, C.H., Reinecke, K., Herdegen, T., Courtney, M., Hurd, Y.L., and Harkany, T. (January 27, 2014). “Miswiring the brain: Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol disrupts cortical development by inducing an SCG10/stathmin‐2 degradation pathway.” The EMBO Journal. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[33] Minnes, S., Lang, A., and Singer, L. (July 2011). “Prenatal Tobacco, Marijuana, Stimulant, and Opiate Exposure: Outcomes and Practice Implications.” Addiction Science & Clinical Practice. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[34] Ibid.

[35] “What are the effects of maternal cocaine use?” (September 2010). National Institute on Drug Abuse. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[36] Lester, B.M., Andreozzi, L., and Appiah, L. (April 20, 2004). “Substance use during pregnancy: time for policy to catch up with research.” Harm Reduction Journal. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[37] “What are the risks of methamphetamine abuse during pregnancy?” (September 2013). National Institute on Drug Abuse. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[38] Minnes, S., Lang, A., and Singer, L. (July 2011). “Prenatal Tobacco, Marijuana, Stimulant, and Opiate Exposure: Outcomes and Practice Implications.” Addiction Science & Clinical Practice. Accessed September 10, 2014.

[39] “How does heroin use affect pregnant women?” (February 2014). National Institute on Drug Abuse. Accessed September 10, 2014.