In the United States, Drug Abuse Counseling has an increasing demand than drug abuse medication. The negative effects of alcoholism and substance addiction are extremely costly. Such as tough relationship between family members, child maltreatment, individual pain and suffering, trouble financially, health issues, fetal alcohol disease, HIV/AIDS, legal issues, imprisonment, car accidents, lesser job performance, and loss of employment, to name a few, are all costs that can be measured in dollars. Trying to combat and decreasing the root causes of these issues has made challenging, but providing appropriate treatment to substance addicts is among the most simple and direct, and inoffensive solutions.
This book Approaches to Drug Abuse Counseling and treatment demonstrates different methods of consoling used for the people suffering from abusive use of drugs. Two major methods of Drug Abuse Counseling are used commonly, individual consoling and group consoling. Different consoling approaches were found to be useful in different treatment plans. These treatment plans were evolved by the reputed and experienced physicians of the country. This book is compiled to discuss the details of these most commonly and repeatedly used consoling approaches in the United States of America. Although it is impossible to show all Drug Abuse Counseling models, it was tried to discuss the most important models in this book. To get better exposure to the treatment plans and consoling models, we invited the representatives to write chapters in this book. These chapters can better elaborate on the consoling methods associated with various treatment programs. Here are the names of some writers: Patricia Owen (Hazelden Foundation) , Fred Sipe (the Betty Ford Center ), Terence T. Gorski (CENAPS), Jeffrey A. Hoffman (Living In Balance), and Arnold M. Washton (the Washton Institute).
Some qualified and well-known researchers were also invited to add chapters to this book. This increased the value of the book. Other scientists and researchers who played their role in completing were attached to the following institutes: the University of New Mexico (William R. Miller), University of Pennsylvania (Delinda Mercer), and Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic (Dennis C. Daley).
As well, chapters by Richard Salwen, Elizabeth Driscoll Jorgensen, and Scott D. Miller examine unique counseling opportunities for a variety of populations & settings. The chapters were written by experts in the area of counseling who are considered to be authority figures in the area of counseling in question.
Often, after reading several chapters in a typical edited book on treatments, readers will be unable to compare the information provided in the chapters, visualize their similarities and differences, and evaluate their efficacy. Most authors find a variety of topics important, emphasize differing issues, and write chapters that are different from every other author’s. Additionally, the chapter should not concentrate exclusively on the theoretical background, as it will be somewhat difficult to comprehend how psychologists work with clients and what the psychological interventions are. Two of the editors of the book designed a comprehensive outline of topics that can be applied effectively to almost any counseling approach to make the comparison of the various models less difficult and to clarify how each model is accepted in primary treatment by the professionals.
A variety of counseling practices were discussed along with the theoretical rationale. They wrote a comprehensive outline for the comparison of different models. This model helps to compare different models in a practical way.
The Format of This Model Is Defined in Next Lines:
- OVERVIEW, DESCRIPTION, AND RATIONALE 1. General Meaning of Approach 2. Purposes of Approach 3. The phenomenon of Action 4. Agents involved in Change (these include, therapist and patient, etc.) 5. Causes of Drug abuse and their consequences
- CONTRAST TO OTHER DRUG ABUSE COUNSELING APPROACHES 1. The common thing in different Approaches to Drug Abuse Counseling 2. Differences between Drug Abuse Counseling Approaches
- FORMAT 1. Essential of Treatment 2. Essential Requirements for Ideal Treatment 3. How Long it Takes to Treat a Patient 4. Comparison of different treatment methods 5. Patients own Role in Treatment
- COUNSELOR CHARACTERISTICS AND TRAINING 1. Theoretical Requirement 2. Essential for Training 3. How treatment was Beneficial? 4. What Personal Abilities an Ideal Counselor Possesses? 5. Prescription of Counselor’s Behaviour 6. Impact of different Treatment Techniques 7. Supervision Management
- CLIENT-COUNSELOR RELATIONSHIP 1. Role of the Counselor? (How helpful he was as a therapist and trainer?) 2. Who speaks and who listens? 3. Direct relationship of the Counselor to the patient? 4. Combined Impact of different Therapeutic Approaches simultaneously
- TARGET POPULATIONS 1. Best Treatment Plan for a Specific Patient Depending upon His Mental and Physical Conditions
- ASSESSMENT (health status before treatment, changes observed during and after treatment; main factors of observation and any instruments used for treatment)
- SESSION FORMAT AND CONTENT 1. Complete Format of Drug Abuse Counseling Program (including the start and end of the program) 2. Different Topics addressed during the Session and its Theme. 3. Basic Structure of Typical Drug Abuse Counseling Approach used. 4. How Common Clinical Problems were addressed during the Treatment. 5. How Different issues like Denial, Resistance, or Poor Motivation were dealt with during Treatment? 6. Crises Dealing Strategies. 7. Response of Counselor to Pauses and missed Sessions
- ROLE OF SIGNIFICANT OTHERS IN TREATMENT (It includes the role of family and friends of a specific patient during and treatment plan; how they helped the patient to recover from the disorders?)
This model related to Drug Abuse Counseling allows the common people to understand the differences in different models. It also helps to understand the next steps in a specific treatment model. In 1993 a conference about Drug Abuse was held by the NIDA or National Institute on Drug Abuse. About all the authors who took part in the completion of this book were present at that conference. They presented their work that helped a lot to compile all the data in the form of a book. In 1996, the book was completed and ready to guide the physicians as well as common people.
The use of different types of drugs has increased very much during recent years. Their increased use is mainly the result of increased mental health disorders. However, these drugs are prescribed by qualified physicians, improper dosage and long-term use cause addiction to these drugs. These drugs are mainly classified into three different types. These categories are as below: Depressants for central nervous system Alcohols, barbiturates, and sedatives fall in this category Stimulants for central nervous system Amphetamines, cocaine, caffeine are classified under this category. Opiates include morphine and heroin. Demerol, Darvon, and methadone are examples of opioids. Opiates are produced naturally, while opioids are manufactured in the lab. Hallucinogens Examples of hallucinogens are LSD, mescaline, peyote, and methamphetamine. Marijuana is also used as a drug.
The use of different drugs depends on the physical and mental health of the person. People use drugs due to one of the three main reasons: Because of their mental illness such people use drugs under the strict supervision of physicians, and their aim is to cure their mental disorders. For relaxation, some people take these drugs as relaxing material when excessively exhausted or facing some bad situation like anger and sadness. For addiction, some people get addicted to these drugs and feel that their survival lies in the use of these harmful drugs.
Among all the above purposes, the only first one is an appropriate use of these drugs. Such drugs must be used only under the strict supervision of qualified physicians and with just one main aim, the cure. Any other use of these drugs leads to enhance negative impact on our mental and physical health. This negative (rightly said abusive) use of these drugs also ruins our personal and family life. The list of harms caused by these drugs is very long.
There prevail different misconceptions about the use of these drugs. Addicted and mentally ill parents inherit their disorders to their children. Their careless, irresponsible behavior and inadequate moral supervision of their children lead to the development of many mental health issues. Children from such parents develop a number of bad and immoral habits. They take drugs to overcome family stress. In no time, they become addicted and feel difficulty overcoming this addiction.
Young adults feel much more stress in their environment than matures. They take different drugs and alcohol to release that stress and fuel better moods. Modern facilities like online shopping made easy access to these drugs. Children should be strictly supervised and provided with necessities. They also need proper Drug Abuse Counseling to remain away from drugs. Drug Abuse Counseling lectures must also be arranged in schools, colleges, and educational institutes to listen and resolve their issues to these activities.
Our physical and mental health status depicts what we are giving to our body and mind. If we are feeding our body and soul with negative things and thoughts, how can we expect a healthy lifestyle? Our body reflects the used drugs in different styles. One or more of the following symptoms may be noted in people using drugs improperly: Increased anger (ready to respond angrily overall incidents), ack of social ethics, financial instability, lack of responsibility, imbalanced family life, loss of appetite, damaged physical health and, loss of concentration.
Different studies were conducted to evaluate the consequence of alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States of America. It was reported in various studies that these bad habits result in financial losses to the affected persons. But other losses are considered to be more fatal in terms of social and personal issues. Such people may face some fatal diseases like HIV infection and hepatitis. Loss of concentration and damaged physical health cause loss of job and financial problems. In a similar way, their lack of responsibility causes severe family disturbances. These may lead to disturbed family relations. Increased ratio of divorce is also observed in addicted people. Such people are unable to continue their regular life routine and family responsibilities. They lose their partners, family, and friends. In some cases, children of such person also leave them. Modern medical science research provided us several ways to treat people facing abusive use of addictive drugs. Qualified physicians decide which is method is best for a person to get a complete cure. Physicians observe the physical and mental health status along with other factors when giving treatment.
Following are some methods and may be considered steps (in some cases) of treatment to address these issues. Behavioral Drug Abuse Counseling and medication, treatment of co-occurring mental problems like depression and anxiety, and follow-up for a long time to decrease the chances of re-occurrence of the issue. Treatment of withdrawal symptoms. Rehabilitation of persons through skill development or deliver skills training In most cases, all of the above steps are followed for the complete cure of affected people. But amongst all, Drug Abuse Counseling of patients is found to be the most component of treatment. In many cases of lesser severity, Drug and Substance Abuse Counseling is found enough to treat patients.
Editor: Retired John J. Boren, Ph.D.
MD- Chevy Chase
In the Behavioral Treatment Development Branch of the National Institutes of Health, Lisa Simon Onken, Ph.D. is located at the National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse Building, Room 4227, at 6001 Executive Boulevard Bethesda, Maryland 20892.
Harvard University, School of MedicineKathleen Carroll, Ph.D., 34 Park Street, New Haven, CT 06519
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